The assessment of two-way relationship between periodontal diseases and diabetes mellitus

Georgiana Ioana Potra Cicalău 1, Petru Aurel Babeș 1, Daniela Domocoș 1, Mihaela Pogan 1
1 University of Oradea, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Oradea, Romania

Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus have been said to have a two-way relationship, with diabetes leading to oral disease and periodontitis exacerbating hyperglycemia. The universal biologic mechanisms and demographic and behavioral risk drivers, underlying these associations in both directions, are also described.
Both the diseases are chronic and they are affecting large population worldwide. Periodontitis is also recognized as the sixth major complication of diabetes, while diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder which has an impact on the global health and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.
The aim of this article is to illustrate a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the literature, on the mutual relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases,
trying to identify if the prevalence of periodontitis is higher in diabetics or if the incidence of diabetes is greater in patients with periodontal disease. Moreover, our intention is to increase the level of awareness of diabetologists and dentists about the interaction between this two pathologies.
Oral and periodontal health should be promoted as integral components of diabetes management. Dental professionals can detect unrecognized potential dysglycemia and refer for medical examination. Furthermore, the control of periodontal disease may enhance glycemic control which contributes to a better control of periodontal disease.